HIV Science

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  Présentation

Since the start of the epidemic HIV has infected over 75 million people and provoked more than 35 million deaths. Today, although HIV replication can be controlled by antiretroviral treatment, HIV infection remains an outstanding global health issue, with 36.7 million infected people and 1 million HIV-related deaths in 2016, according to WHO. Half of the infected population does not have access to antiretroviral treatment and 2 million new infections are registered every year. In addition there is currently no cure for HIV and antiretroviral treatment needs to be maintained for life. In this MOOC we will review different aspects of HIV infection: from its biological origin and its identification as the causative agent of AIDS to the perspectives of eradication. We will summarize the status of the HIV epidemic in the world from the perspective of the virus (molecular diversity) and the host (populations). We will focus a large part of the course on the latest discoveries on the complex interactions between the virus and the host cell, the immune mechanisms that are set in motion to tackle the virus and how HIV is able to evade them. We will describe exceptional individuals who have developed efficient mechanisms to control the infection and animal models of spontaneous protection. Finally, we will address research issues with regard to clinical management of HIV infection and future perspectives on treatment and prevention. Altogether, this MOOC will provide a transversal insight into HIV research with the perspective of both scientists and clinicians.

  Programme

Chapter 1 : Origin, Epidemiology and natural history of HIV infection/ Origine, épidémiologie et histoire naturelle de l’infection par VIH
  • Discovery of the etiological agent of AIDS/Découverte de l’agent étiologique du SIDA
  • Origin of HIV and animal reservoirs/Origine du VIH et réservoirs animaux
  • Modes of transmission and natural history of infection/Mode de transmission et histoire naturelle de l’infection.
  • Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS in the world/Epidémiologie du VIH et du SIDA à travers le monde
  • Types, groups, subtypes and recombinants of HIV in the world/Types, groupes, sous-types et recombinants du VIH à travers le monde.
Chapter 2: Mechanisms of HIV replication and dissemination. The establishment of viral reservoirs./Mécanismes de réplication virale et de dissémination. La formation de réservoirs viraux.
  • First steps of viral entry in the body. Mucosae: the entry gate./ Premières étapes de l’entrée du virus dans l’organisme. Les muqueuses : la porte d’entrée.
  • Cellular targets and mechanisms of viral dissemination from cell to cell./ Cibles cellulaires et mécanismes de la dissémination virale entre les cellules.
  • Replication cycle: facilitating and restriction factors. / Cycle de réplication du virus : facteurs de facilitation et de restriction.
  • HIV transcription and latency. / Transcription du virus et latence.
  • Cellular and anatomical reservoirs. Viral persistence on cART. / Réservoirs cellulaires et anatomiques. Persistance du virus sous chimiothérapie antirétrovirale.
Chapter 3 : HIV and the immune system. / VIH et immunité.
  • Innate immune responses: viral sensing and dendritic cells. / Immunité innée: détection virale et cellules dendritiques.
  • Innate immune responses : NK cells. / Immunité innée : cellules NK
  • Adaptive immune responses : T-cell responses. / Immunité adaptative : la réponse cellulaire T.
  • Adaptive immune responses : B-cell responses and antibodies. / Immunité adaptative : Réponse cellulaire B et anticorps.
  • Immune evasion: from escape to viral neglect. / Evasion : de l’échappement à la négligence.
Chapter 4: Physiopathology of HIV infection/ Physiopathologie de l’infection à VIH.
  • Mechanisms of HIV-induced pathogenesis: inflammation, disruption of lymphoid tissue architectures, premature aging. / Mécanismes des modifications induites par le VIH : perturbations de l’architecture du tissu lymphatique, vieillissement prématuré.
  • HIV and co-infections. / VIH et coïnfections.
  • Natural control of pathogenesis in natural hosts. / Contrôle naturel des modifications chez l’hôte.
  • Exposed non-infected individuals. / Individus exposés mais non infectés.
  • Natural control of infection and HIV remission. / Contrôle naturel de l’infection et rémission de la maladie VIH.
Chapter 5 : Clinical management./ Prise en charge clinique.
  • Diagnostic methods. / Méthodes diagnostiques.
  • Anti-retroviral therapies. / Thérapies antirétrovirales.
  • Biomarkers of disease progression and loss of viral control. / Les biomarqueurs de progression et de perte de contrôle de la maladie.
  • Anti-retroviral resistance. / Résistance aux anti-rétroviraux.
  • Impact of long-term HIV infection on cART: Co-morbidity and non-AIDS mortality./ Impact de l’infection au VIH à long terme sur la trithérapie : comorbidité et mortalité non liée au SIDA.
Chapter 6 : Perspectives and future challenges. / Perspectives et challenges.
  • The antiretroviral treatment tomorrow. / Le traitement antirétroviral de demain.
  • Treatment as prevention (PreP, PEP and TASP). / Les traitements préventifs (PreP, PEP et TASP)
  • Vaccines, what is there in the pipeline? / Vaccination : quelles sont les perspectives ?
  • Perspectives to achieve HIV remission or cure. / Sera-t-il possible d’envisager la rémission ou la guérison ?
  • What do PLWH expect next from research? / Qu’attendent les porteurs actuels du VIH des progrès de la recherche

  Déroulement

This MOOC is organized in 6 chapters :  
  • 1. Origin, Epidemiology and Natural history of HIV infection.
  • 2. Mechanisms of HIV replication and dissemination. The establishment of viral reservoirs.
  • 3. HIV and the immune system.
  • 4. Physiopathology of HIV infection.
  • 5. Clinical management.
  • 6. Perspectives and future challenges.
Each module is composed of 5 sessions. In each session, you will find a 8-10-minute video and a multiple choice test to help you check your understanding. The videos are in English subtitled in French and in English.

  Intervenants

MICHAELA MÜLLER-TRUTWIN

Michaela Müller-Trutwin is Associate Professor and the head of the “HIV, Inflammation and Persistence” Unit at Institut Pasteur, where she also directed the international PhD program. She is the President of the Coordinated Action on HIV Basic research at the ANRS and Vice-President of the Scientific Council at Institut Pasteur. Her work is focused on identifying factors involved in the protection against chronic inflammation and the control of viral reservoirs with the aim to translate the findings into clinical research.

ASIER SÁEZ-CIRIÓN

Asier Sáez-Cirión is Associate Professor at Institut Pasteur and Team Leader at the HIV, Inflammation and Persistence Unit. He is the Co-coordinator of the ANRS RHIVIERA consortium on HIV remission and the ANRS VISCONTI study. He is the president of the scientific and medical committee of Sidaction. His work is currently focused on understanding natural mechanisms associated with control of HIV/SIV infection and progression to AIDS. In particular he studies the role of intrinsic and adaptive immunity and the impact of viral reservoirs in different models of spontaneous or induced control of viremia in the absence of antiretroviral therapy.